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All Published Research and Evaluation on CMP

A large body of literature exists that focuses on or is related to the Connected Mathematics Project. Here, you will find articles on CMP that we have compiled over the past thirty years. These include research, evaluation and descriptions from books, book chapters, dissertations, research articles, reports, conference proceedings, and essays. Some of the topics are:

  • student learning in CMP classrooms
  • teacher's knowledge in CMP classrooms
  • CMP classrooms as research sites
  • implementation strategies of CMP
  • longitudinal effects of CMP in high school math classes
  • students algebraic understanding
  • student proportional reasoning
  • student achievement
  • student conceptual and procedural reasoning and understanding
  • professional development and teacher collaboration
  • comparative studies on different aspects of mathematics curricula
  • the CMP philosophy and design, development, field testing and evaluation process for CMP

This list is based on thorough reviews of the literature and updated periodically. Many of these readings are available online or through your local library system. A good start is to paste the title of the publication into your search engine. Please contact us if you have a suggestion for a reading that is not on the list, or if you need assistance locating a reading.


Aisling, L. M., Friel, S. N., & Mamer, J. D. (2009). It’s a fird!: Can you compute a median of categorical data? Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 14(6), 344-351.

Description: Students need time and experience to develop essential understandings when they explore data analysis. In this article, the reader gains insight into confusion that may result as students think about summarizing information about a categorical data set that is attempting to use, in particular, the median. The authors highlight points to consider in helping students unpack these essential understandings.

Read It's a Fird!

Ben-Zvi, D. (2004). Reasoning about data analysis. In D. Ben-Zvi & J. B. Garfield (Eds.), The challenge of developing statistical reasoning, literacy and thinking (pp. 121-146). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.

Read Reasoning about Data Analysis

Capraro, M. M., Kulm, G., & Capraro, R. M. (2005). Middle grades: Misconceptions in statistical thinking. School Science and Mathematics, 105, 165-174.

ABSTRACT: A sample of 134 sixth-grade students who were using the Connected Mathematics Project (CMP) curriculum were administered an open-ended item entitled, Vet Club (Balanced Assessment, 200). This paper explores the role of misconceptions and naïve conceptions in the acquisition of statistical thinking for middle grades students. Students exhibited misconceptions and naïve conceptions regarding representing data graphically, interpreting the meaning of typicality, and plotting 0 above the x-axis.

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Friel, S. N. & O’Connor, W. T. (1999). Sticks to the roof of your mouth? Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 4(6), 404–11.

ABSTRACT: Part of a special issue on teaching and learning the concepts of data and chance in the middle school. An activity that involves students comparing data sets by using data about 37 brands of peanut butter and their quality ratings is presented. The testing of the peanut butter, the graphing of the data, the determination of outliers, and the extension of the data analysis are discussed.