# All Published Research and Evaluation on CMP

A large body of literature exists that focuses on or is related to the *Connected Mathematics Project*. Here, you will find articles on CMP that we have compiled over the past thirty years. These include research, evaluation and descriptions from books, book chapters, dissertations, research articles, reports, conference proceedings, and essays. Some of the topics are:

- student learning in CMP classrooms
- teacher's knowledge in CMP classrooms
- CMP classrooms as research sites
- implementation strategies of CMP
- longitudinal effects of CMP in high school math classes
- students algebraic understanding
- student proportional reasoning
- student achievement
- student conceptual and procedural reasoning and understanding
- professional development and teacher collaboration
- comparative studies on different aspects of mathematics curricula
- the CMP philosophy and design, development, field testing and evaluation process for CMP

This list is based on thorough reviews of the literature and updated periodically. Many of these readings are available online or through your local library system. A good start is to paste the title of the publication into your search engine. Please contact us if you have a suggestion for a reading that is not on the list, or if you need assistance locating a reading.

Izsák, A. (2000). Inscribing the winch: Mechanisms by which students develop knowledge structures for representing the physical world with algebra. *Journal of the Learning Sciences, 9*(1), 31-74.

ABSTRACT: I propose and test an account of mechanisms by which students develop knowledge structures for modeling the physical world with algebra. The account begins to bridge the gap between current mathematics curricula, in which modeling activities play an important role, and theoretical accounts of how students learn to model, which lag behind. After describing the larger study, in which I observed 12 pairs of 8th-grade students introduce and refine algebraic representations of a physical device called a winch, I then focus on 1 pair that generated an unconventional yet sound equation. Because the prevailing genetic accounts of knowledge structures in mathematics education, cognitive science, and information-processing psychology do not explain key characteristics of the data, I begin to construct a new developmental account that does. To do so, I use forms, a class of schemata that combine patterns of algebra symbols with patterns of experience in the physical world, and 2 mechanisms, notation variation and mapping variation. I then use forms and the 2 mechanisms to analyze how the selected pair of students introduced and refined initial, faulty algebraic representations of the winch into an unconventional yet sound equation.

Izsák, A. (2003). “We want a statement that is always true”: Criteria for good algebraic representations and the development of modeling knowledge. *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 34*(3), 191-227.

ABSTRACT: Presents a case study in which two 8th grade students developed knowledge for modeling a physical device called a winch. Demonstrates that students have and can use criteria for evaluating algebraic representations. Explains how students can develop modeling knowledge by coordinating criteria with knowledge for generating and using algebraic representations.

Izsák, A. (2004). Students' coordination of knowledge when learning to model physical situations. *Cognition and Instruction, 22*(1), 81-128.

ABSTRACT: In this article, I present a study in which 12 pairs of 8th-grade students solved problems about a physical device with algebra. The device, called a winch, instantiates motions that can be modeled by pairs of simultaneous linear functions. The following question motivated the study: How can students generate algebraic models without direct instruction from more experienced others? The first main result of the study is that students have and can use criteria for judging when I algebraic expression is better than another. Thus, students can use criteria to regulate their problem-solving activity. The second main result is that constructing knowledge for modeling with algebra can require students to coordinate criteria for algebraic representations with several other types of knowledge that I also identify in the article. These results contribute to research on students' algebraic modeling, cognitive processes and knowledge structures for using mathematical representations, and the development of mathematical knowledge.