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All Published Research and Evaluation on CMP

A large body of literature exists that focuses on or is related to the Connected Mathematics Project. Here, you will find articles on CMP that we have compiled over the past thirty years. These include research, evaluation and descriptions from books, book chapters, dissertations, research articles, reports, conference proceedings, and essays. Some of the topics are:

  • student learning in CMP classrooms
  • teacher's knowledge in CMP classrooms
  • CMP classrooms as research sites
  • implementation strategies of CMP
  • longitudinal effects of CMP in high school math classes
  • students algebraic understanding
  • student proportional reasoning
  • student achievement
  • student conceptual and procedural reasoning and understanding
  • professional development and teacher collaboration
  • comparative studies on different aspects of mathematics curricula
  • the CMP philosophy and design, development, field testing and evaluation process for CMP

This list is based on thorough reviews of the literature and updated periodically. Many of these readings are available online or through your local library system. A good start is to paste the title of the publication into your search engine. Please contact us if you have a suggestion for a reading that is not on the list, or if you need assistance locating a reading.


Ben-Chaim, D., Keret, Y., & Ilany, B-S. (2012). Ratio and proportion: Research and teaching in mathematics teachers’ education (pre- and in-service mathematics teachers of elementary and middle school classes). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.

Hartmann, C. (2004). Using teacher portfolios to enrich the methods course experiences of prospective mathematics teachers. School Science and Mathematics, 104(8), 392-407.

ABSTRACT: This paper illustrates ways to employ teacher portfolios to improve the quality of methods course experiences for prospective mathematics teachers. Based upon research conducted in an undergraduate teacher preparation program, this case study describes how the author used teacher portfolios to mentor prospective teachers in new ways. The case describes the author's experiences through a case study of his assessment of and response to one prospective teacher's portfolio. This portfolio illustrated themes that were present in other teachers' portfolios, but did so in ways that highlighted strategies for change to the methods course. Through the lens of this teacher's portfolio the author identified specific ways that the prospective teacher's beliefs were impacting her teaching practice, a result that enabled him to better help all of the teachers in the methods course reflect on their teaching. By providing a detailed account of the feedback process that led to this result, this paper illustrates how mathematics teacher educators can use prospective teachers' portfolios to enrich the quality of their methods courses.

Read Curriculum Materials Supporting Problem-Based Teaching

Lloyd, G. M. (2008). Curriculum use while learning to teach: One student teacher's appropriation of mathematics curriculum materials. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 39(1), 63-94.

ABSTRACT: This article describes one student teacher's interactions with mathematics curriculum materials during her internship in a kindergarten classroom. Anne used curriculum materials from two distinct programs and taught lessons multiple times to different groups of children. Although she used each curriculum in distinct ways, her curriculum use was adaptive in both cases. Anne's specific ways of reading, evaluating, and adapting the curriculum materials contrast with previous results about beginning teachers' curriculum use. Several key factors appeared to contribute to Anne's particular ways of using the curriculum materials: features of her student-teaching placement, her personal resources and background, and characteristics of the materials. Directions for future research about student teachers' and other teachers' curriculum use are suggested in accord with these factors.

Spielman, L. J., & Lloyd, G. M. (2004). The impact of enacted mathematics curriculum models on prospective elementary teachers’ course perceptions and beliefs. School Science and Mathematics, 104(1), 32-44.

ABSTRACT: This paper communicates the impact of prospective teachers' learning of mathematics using novel curriculum materials in an innovative classroom setting. Two sections of a mathematics content course for prospective elementary teachers used different text materials and instructional approaches. The primary mathematical authorities were the instructor and text in the textbook section and the prospective teachers in the curriculum materials section. After one semester, teachers in the curriculum materials section (n= 34) placed significantly more importance on classroom group work and discussions, less on instructor lecture and explanation, and less on textbooks having practice problems, examples, and explanations. They valued student exploration over practice. In the textbook section (n= 19), there was little change in the teachers' beliefs, in which practice was valued over exploration. These results highlight the positive impact of experiences with innovative curriculum materials on prospective elementary teachers' beliefs about mathematics instruction.

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Wilt, B. J. (2007) Preservice teachers to inservice teachers: Teaching for social justice. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Dissertation Abstracts International, 68(10). (ProQuest ID No. 1251814391)

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research project was to explore how preservice teachers, who are now currently inservice teachers, who took an undergraduate secondary education course with a focus on teaching for social justice, currently, make sense of what it means to teach for social justice. The participants in this study took the same secondary education course for preservice teachers which focused on critical consciousness raising experiences in order to promote teaching for social justice in classrooms. My participants took this course when they were working on their undergraduate degrees in education. This course was the one course in the education program that brought together students in each of the content specific discipline areas of the program--mathematics, science, social studies, language and literacy, and world languages (Bullock, 2004). The course was taken the semester prior to student teaching and occurred during the first 10 weeks of the semester followed by a five-week practicum (Bullock, 2004). In order to conduct my research project I solicited sixteen secondary education teachers, who were previously enrolled in the same undergraduate teacher education program (mentioned above) at a major university in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States to volunteer to participate in this study. The inservice teachers all took the same secondary education course as preservice teachers which focused on teaching for social justice.

There were many factors that influenced the participant's perspectives about teaching for social justice as well as the degree to which they taught for social justice. All these factors--the undergraduate course rooted in critical consciousness raising experiences, sociocultural structures, political structures, contextual influences, hidden curriculum, teaching stance, teaching praxis--connected to power, privilege, and oppression through issues such as race, ethnicity, class, culture, sexual preference, language, ability, etc.

Both participants self-admittedly teach for social justice, however, the degree to which this takes place varies depending on their respective perspectives on what it means to teach for social justice. Jim does not teach for social justice and is less inclined to trouble and challenge dominant perspectives because he is uncomfortable with difference. He also does not understand the sociocultural mechanisms that reproduce hegemony and is part of the complicit process rather than part of the solution. Neil teaches for social justice to a certain degree and is more inclined to trouble and challenge the status quo and hegemonic mechanisms. However, he does this by teaching for the other (Kumashiro, 2002) and teaching about the other (Kumashiro, 2002) but does not teach in a manner that is critical of privileging and Othering (Kumashiro, 2002).

This study suggests that more research is needed in order to explore and understand how teachers who have an awareness of teaching for social justice actually teach for social justice. This exploration and understanding needs to look at the broad scope of the influences on teachers and how these influences impact teaching for social justice. In addition, teacher education programs must emotionally and structurally embrace curricula rooted in social justice in order to promote teaching for social justice in a way that preservice teachers can also embrace and incorporate in to their teaching praxis. If preservice teachers are to do this they need to understand approaches like education for the Other, education about the Other, education that is critical of privileging and Othering, and education that changes students and society (Kumashiro, 2002) in order to teach for social justice.

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